Spring Cloud Tutorial - Spring Cloud Gateway Hello World Example
In this tutorial we will be implementing API Gateway using Spring Cloud Gateway. Spring Cloud Gateway is a non blocking API. When using non blocking API, a thread is always available to process the incoming request. These request are then processed asynchronously in the background and once completed the response is returned. So no incoming request never gets blocked when using Spring Cloud Gateway.
We will first look at what is API gateway and why are they needed. Then we will be exploring the Spring Cloud Gateway Architecture and implement an API Gateway using it.
Spring Cloud - Table Of ContentsMicroservice Registration and Discovery with Spring cloud using Netflix Eureka- Part 1. Microservice Registration and Discovery with Spring cloud using Netflix Eureka - Part 2. Microservice Registration and Discovery with Spring cloud using Netflix Eureka - Part 3. Microservice Registration and Discovery with Spring cloud using Netflix Eureka - Part 4. Spring Cloud- Netflix Eureka + Ribbon Simple Example Spring Cloud- Netflix Eureka + Ribbon + Hystrix Fallback Simple Example Spring Cloud- Netflix Hystrix Circuit Breaker Simple Example Spring Cloud- Netflix Feign REST Client Simple Example Spring Cloud- Netflix Zuul +Eureka Simple Example Spring Cloud Config Server using Native Mode Simple Example Spring Cloud Config Server Using Git Simple Example Spring Boot Admin Simple Example Spring Cloud Stream Tutorial - Publish Message to RabbitMQ Simple Example Spring Cloud Stream Tutorial - Consume Message from RabbitMQ Simple Example Spring Cloud Tutorial - Publish Events Using Spring Cloud Bus Spring Cloud Tutorial - Stream Processing Using Spring Cloud Data Flow Spring Cloud Tutorial - Distributed Log Tracing using Sleuth and Zipkin Example Spring Cloud Tutorial - Spring Cloud Gateway Hello World Example Spring Cloud Tutorial - Spring Cloud Gateway Filters Example Spring Cloud Tutorial - Spring Cloud Gateway + Netflix Eureka Example Spring Cloud Tutorial - Spring Cloud Gateway + Netflix Eureka + Netflix Hystrix Example Spring Cloud Tutorial - Secure Secrets using Spring Cloud Config + Vault Example
VideoThis tutorial is explained in the below Youtube Video.
What is an API Gateway? Why do we need it?An API Gateway acts as a single entry point for a collection of microservices. Any external client cannot access the microservices directly but can access them only through the application gateway
In a real world scenario an external client can be any one of the three-
- Mobile Application
- Desktop Application
- External Services or third party Apps
- This improves the security of the microservices as we limit the access of external calls to all our services.
- The cross cutting concerns like authentication, monitoring/metrics, and resiliency will be needed to be implemented only in the API Gateway as all our calls will be routed through it.
- The client does not know about the internal architecture of our microservices system. Client will not be able to determine the location of the microservice instances.
- Simplifies client interaction as he will need to access only a single service for all the requirements.
Spring Cloud Gateway ArchitectureSpring Cloud Gateway is API Gateway implementation by Spring Cloud team on top of Spring reactive ecosystem. It consists of the following building blocks-
Route: Route the basic building block of the gateway. It consists of
- destination URI
- Collection of predicates and a collection of filters
- A route is matched if aggregate predicate is true.
- Predicate: This is similar to Java 8 Function Predicate. Using this functionality we can match HTTP request, such as headers , url, cookies or parameters.
- Filter: These are instances Spring Framework GatewayFilter. Using this we can modify the request or response as per the requirement. We will be looking at filters in detail in the next tutorial - Spring Cloud Tutorial - Spring Cloud Gateway Filters Example
When the client makes a request to the Spring Cloud Gateway, the Gateway Handler Mapping first checks if the request matches a route. This matching is done using the predicates. If it matches the predicate then the request is sent to the filters.
Implementing Spring Cloud GatewayUsing Spring Cloud Gateway we can create routes in either of the two ways -
- Use java based configuration to programmatically create routes
- Use property based configuration(i.e application.properties or application.yml) to create routes.
We will be implementing Spring Cloud Gateway application which routes request to two other microservices depending on the url pattern.