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Top Gradle (2022) frequently asked interview questions | JavaInUse

Top Gradle frequently asked interview questions.

In this post we will look at Gradle Interview questions. Examples are provided with explanations.

Q: What is Gradle Framework ?
Gradle is an open source build automation system that builds upon the concepts of Apache Ant and Apache Maven and introduces a Groovy-based domain-specific language (DSL) instead of the XML form used by Apache Maven for declaring the project configuration.

Q: What are the advantages of Gradle?
The advantages of Gradle are as follows-
  • Declarative builds and build-by-convention- At the heart of Gradle lies a rich extensible Domain Specific Language (DSL) based on Groovy. Gradle pushes declarative builds to the next level by providing declarative language elements that you can assemble as you like. Those elements also provide build-by-convention support for Java, Groovy, OSGi, Web and Scala projects. Even more, this declarative language is extensible. Add your own new language elements or enhance the existing ones, thus providing concise, maintainable and comprehensible builds.
  • Language for dependency based programming- The declarative language lies on top of a general purpose task graph, which you can fully leverage in your builds. It provides utmost flexibility to adapt Gradle to your unique needs.
  • Structure your build- The suppleness and richness of Gradle finally allows you to apply common design principles to your build. For example, it is very easy to compose your build from reusable pieces of build logic. Inline stuff where unnecessary indirections would be inappropriate. Don't be forced to tear apart what belongs together (e.g. in your project hierarchy). Avoid smells like shotgun changes or divergent change that turn your build into a maintenance nightmare. At last you can create a well structured, easily maintained, comprehensible build.
  • Deep API- From being a pleasure to be used embedded to its many hooks over the whole lifecycle of build execution, Gradle allows you to monitor and customize its configuration and execution behavior to its very core.
  • Gradle scales- Gradle scales very well. It significantly increases your productivity, from simple single project builds up to huge enterprise multi-project builds. This is true for structuring the build. With the state-of-art incremental build function, this is also true for tackling the performance pain many large enterprise builds suffer from.
  • Multi-project builds- Gradle's support for multi-project build is outstanding. Project dependencies are first class citizens. We allow you to model the project relationships in a multi-project build as they really are for your problem domain. Gradle follows your layout not vice versa.
  • Gradle provides partial builds- If you build a single subproject Gradle takes care of building all the subprojects that subproject depends on. You can also choose to rebuild the subprojects that depend on a particular subproject. Together with incremental builds this is a big time saver for larger builds.
  • Many ways to manage your dependencies- Different teams prefer different ways to manage their external dependencies. Gradle provides convenient support for any strategy. From transitive dependency management with remote Maven and Ivy repositories to jars or directories on the local file system.
  • Gradle is the first build integration tool- Ant tasks are first class citizens. Even more interesting, Ant projects are first class citizens as well. Gradle provides a deep import for any Ant project, turning Ant targets into native Gradle tasks at runtime. You can depend on them from Gradle, you can enhance them from Gradle, you can even declare dependencies on Gradle tasks in your build.xml. The same integration is provided for properties, paths, etc ...

Gradle fully supports your existing Maven or Ivy repository- infrastructure for publishing and retrieving dependencies. Gradle also provides a converter for turning a Maven pom.xml into a Gradle script. Runtime imports of Maven projects will come soon.
  • Ease of migration- Gradle can adapt to any structure you have. Therefore you can always develop your Gradle build in the same branch where your production build lives and both can evolve in parallel. We usually recommend to write tests that make sure that the produced artifacts are similar. That way migration is as less disruptive and as reliable as possible. This is following the best-practices for refactoring by applying baby steps.
  • Groovy- Gradle's build scripts are written in Groovy, not XML. But unlike other approaches this is not for simply exposing the raw scripting power of a dynamic language. That would just lead to a very difficult to maintain build. The whole design of Gradle is oriented towards being used as a language, not as a rigid framework. And Groovy is our glue that allows you to tell your individual story with the abstractions Gradle (or you) provide. Gradle provides some standard stories but they are not privileged in any form. This is for us a major distinguishing feature compared to other declarative build systems. Our Groovy support is not just sugar coating. The whole Gradle API is fully Groovy-ized. Adding Groovy results in an enjoyable and productive experience.
  • The Gradle wrapper- The Gradle Wrapper allows you to execute Gradle builds on machines where Gradle is not installed. This is useful for example for some continuous integration servers. It is also useful for an open source project to keep the barrier low for building it. The wrapper is also very interesting for the enterprise. It is a zero administration approach for the client machines. It also enforces the usage of a particular Gradle version thus minimizing support issues.
  • Free and open source- Gradle is an open source project, and is licensed under the ASL.
  • Q: Why use Gradle instead of Maven or Ant?
    Ant gave us total flexibility, and Maven gives better dependency management , but there isn't great support for multi-project builds. You end up doing a lot of coding to support multi-project builds. Also having some build-by-convention is nice and makes build scripts more concise. With Maven, it takes build by convention too far, and customizing your build process becomes a hack. Also, Maven promotes every project publishing an artifact. Sometimes you have a project split up into subprojects but you want all of the subprojects to be built and versioned together. Not really something Maven is designed for.
    With Gradle you can have the flexibility of Ant and build by convention of Maven. For example, it is trivial to extend the conventional build lifecycle with your own task. And you aren't forced to use a convention if you don't want to. Groovy is much nicer to code than XML. In Gradle, you can define dependencies between projects on the local file system without the need to publish artifacts for each to a repository.

    Q: What are Gradle Build Scripts ?
    Gradle builds a script file for handling two things, one is projects and another one is tasks. Every Gradle build represents one or more projects. A project represents a library JAR or a web application or it might represent a ZIP that assembled from the JARs produced by other projects.
    Q: What is Gradle Wrapper?
    The Gradle Wrapper is the preferred way of starting a Gradle build. The wrapper is a batch script on Windows, and a shell script for other operating systems. When we start a Gradle build via the wrapper, Gradle will be automatically downloaded and used to run the build.

    Q: How do you add gradle dependencies ?
    To add a dependency to your project, specify a dependency configuration such as compile in the dependencies block of your build.gradle file.
    Spring Boot application using Gradle

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